The Complete Analysis of the poem Three Dimensions by jose Craveirinhas

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 Title of the poem

The title "Three Dimensions" in José Craveirinha's poem likely refers to the different aspects or perspectives highlighted within the verses. The poem explores the mechanization of society, depicting gods associated with machinery in various settings – the cabin, the carriage, and the branch-line. Each dimension represents a distinct facet of the industrial world, symbolizing the godly presence and influence in the realm of machines and transportation. The title suggests a layered exploration of these dimensions, providing a multifaceted view of the impact of technology on human existence.

Themes of the poem

The poem "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha explores several themes, including:

1. **Mechanization and Industrialization:** The poem delves into the impact of technology and machinery on society. It personifies these advancements by describing gods associated with different aspects of the machine, such as the pistons and the trolley, highlighting the pervasive influence of industrialization.

2. **Social Stratification:** The mention of the "god of the machine" in overalls and the "first-class god" in the carriage suggests a social hierarchy within the context of technological progress. This theme reflects on how advancements may contribute to or accentuate existing social divisions.

3. **Isolation and Alienation:** The gods in the poem seem detached from the human experience, existing within their specific dimensions. This can be interpreted as a commentary on the potential alienation and isolation that can result from the increasing reliance on machinery and technological systems.

4. **Human Labor and Struggle:** The image of the "god of the trolley" with "feet flat against the steel of the coaches" conveys a sense of physical exertion and struggle. This theme addresses the human labor involved in the operation and maintenance of machines, emphasizing the challenges faced by those directly engaged with technology.

5. **Critique of Modernity:** The poem may serve as a critique of the dehumanizing aspects of modernity, raising questions about the cost of technological progress and its impact on human values, relationships, and the environment.

Overall, "Three Dimensions" engages with complex themes related to the intersection of technology and society, offering a nuanced perspective on the consequences and implications of industrialization.

Tone and Mood of the poem

The tone of "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha is contemplative and somewhat critical. The poet observes the influence of mechanization on society and presents it in a thoughtful manner. There is a sense of reflection on the implications of technological progress, and this is conveyed through the choice of words and imagery.

The mood of the poem can be described as both introspective and somber. The poet seems to be exploring the consequences of industrialization and the gods associated with different aspects of machinery. The mood is not overtly celebratory; instead, there's a subdued atmosphere that invites readers to reflect on the impact of technology on the human experience. The mention of the god of the trolley "bursting his lungs" adds a touch of intensity, contributing to the mood of the poem.

Imagery of the poem

The poem "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha employs vivid imagery to convey its themes. Here are some notable examples:

1. **"the god of the machine in cap and overalls":** This image personifies the machinery, presenting it as a deity adorned in work attire. It vividly captures the merging of the divine and industrial elements.

2. **"holds in his hand the secret of the pistons":** The image of the god holding the secret of the pistons adds a mysterious and powerful quality, emphasizing the control and knowledge associated with technological advancements.

3. **"feet flat against the steel of the coaches":** This vivid description of the god of the trolley with feet pressed against the steel emphasizes the physicality and strain involved in the operation of machinery, creating a strong visual image of effort and struggle.

4. **"elaborates his schemes in regulated air":** The first-class god crafting schemes in regulated air suggests a controlled and calculated environment, contributing to the overall sense of order and precision associated with advanced technology.

5. **"on the branch-line":** The mention of the branch-line conjures an image of a peripheral or less significant aspect of the industrial landscape, possibly hinting at the overlooked or marginalized aspects of technological progress.

6. **"bursting his lungs":** This powerful and visceral image of the god of the trolley "bursting his lungs" conveys a sense of exertion and sacrifice, highlighting the physical toll of labor associated with machinery.

The imagery in the poem enhances the reader's understanding of the themes and contributes to the overall impact of the poet's commentary on the intersection of technology and society.

Symbolism of the poem

The poem "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha incorporates symbolism to convey deeper meanings associated with the themes of mechanization and industrialization. Here are some symbolic elements in the poem:

1. **Gods of the Machine:** The gods symbolize the powerful and influential forces behind the machinery, representing the impact of technology on society. The choice of gods implies a certain reverence or significance attributed to these mechanical advancements.

2. **Overalls and First-Class:** The attire of the gods, with the god of the machine wearing overalls and the first-class god, symbolizes the social stratification and hierarchy present in the context of technological progress. It suggests a division between those directly involved in labor and those in more privileged positions.

3. **The Secret of the Pistons:** The secret held by the god of the machine symbolizes the specialized knowledge and control associated with the inner workings of technology. It implies a level of understanding that may not be accessible or transparent to everyone.

4. **Regulated Air:** The phrase "elaborates his schemes in regulated air" symbolizes a controlled and structured environment. It could represent the organized and planned nature of technological advancements, emphasizing a sense of order and precision.

5. **Branch-Line:** The mention of the branch-line may symbolize a peripheral or secondary aspect of industrialization. It could suggest the overlooked or less glamorous facets of technological progress that exist outside the main focus of attention.

6. **Feet Flat Against the Steel:** The physical position of the god of the trolley, with "feet flat against the steel," symbolizes the direct and physically demanding engagement with machinery. It conveys the strenuous labor involved in operating and maintaining technology.

Through these symbols, the poem communicates a nuanced exploration of the impact of technology on society, addressing aspects of power, knowledge, social dynamics, and the physical toll of industrialization.

Metaphors and similes

"Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha incorporates metaphors and similes to enhance its imagery and convey deeper meanings. Here are some examples:

1. **Metaphor - "the god of the machine":** The machine is metaphorically elevated to the status of a deity, emphasizing its power and influence over society.

2. **Simile - "feet flat against the steel of the coaches":** This simile compares the god of the trolley's feet to the steel of the coaches, vividly describing the physical connection and strain involved in operating the machinery.

3. **Metaphor - "the secret of the pistons":** The pistons' secret is metaphorically described, suggesting a level of hidden knowledge and control associated with the inner workings of the machine.

4. **Simile - "elaborates his schemes in regulated air":** This simile compares the first-class god's scheming to the regulated air, creating an image of calculated and controlled planning within a specific environment.

5. **Metaphor - "bursting his lungs":** This metaphorical expression vividly conveys the intense physical effort and strain endured by the god of the trolley during the operation of the machinery.

6. **Simile - "like a sun at dawn":** While not explicitly mentioned in the provided text, if there's a description of any of the gods or machinery resembling a "sun at dawn," it would be a simile comparing the appearance to the rising sun, possibly symbolizing enlightenment or a new era.

These literary devices contribute to the richness of the poem by adding layers of meaning and creating a more evocative and imaginative portrayal of the themes explored.

Language and diction

The language and diction in "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha contribute to the poem's tone and thematic depth. Here are some aspects worth noting:

1. **Formal Diction:** The use of formal language, such as "elaborates his schemes" and "holds in his hand the secret," adds a sense of gravity and seriousness to the poem. This formality enhances the poet's contemplative tone.

2. **Technical Terminology:** The inclusion of technical terms like "pistons" and "regulated air" reflects a precision in language, emphasizing the specific details of the industrial setting. This choice contributes to the overall theme of mechanization.

3. **Personification:** The gods associated with the machine are given human attributes, exemplifying personification. This technique humanizes the machinery, making it more relatable and reinforcing the impact of technology on society.

4. **Imagery-Driven Language:** The poet uses vivid and evocative imagery to convey the themes. Phrases like "feet flat against the steel of the coaches" and "bursting his lungs" employ powerful language to create strong visual and sensory impressions.

5. **Symbolic Language:** The poem employs symbolic language to convey deeper meanings, such as the gods representing different facets of industrialization. This adds layers of interpretation to the text.

6. **Metaphorical Language:** Metaphors like "the god of the machine" and "the secret of the pistons" contribute to the poem's metaphorical richness, elevating the machinery to symbolic and even divine significance.

7. **Elevated Tone:** The language and diction contribute to an elevated tone, creating a sense of reflection and analysis regarding the impact of technology on society. The poem is not overly casual, aligning with its serious themes.

Overall, the careful choice of language, technical terms, and literary devices helps shape the poem's aesthetic and intellectual qualities, providing a nuanced exploration of the intersection between technology and human experience.

Structure of the poem

The structure of "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha contributes to the overall impact of the poem. While the specific structure may vary based on the formatting, here are some common structural elements:

1. **Stanzas:** The poem is likely organized into stanzas, with each stanza containing a set of lines. The division of stanzas may correspond to shifts in theme, tone, or imagery. Examining the number and length of stanzas can provide insights into the organization of the poet's ideas.

2. **Line Length:** The length of lines in each stanza may vary, contributing to the rhythm and flow of the poem. Shorter lines can create a sense of urgency or emphasis, while longer lines may slow down the pacing for contemplation.

3. **Rhyme and Meter:** Check for any consistent rhyme scheme or meter. Free verse, which lacks a regular rhyme or meter, is common in modern poetry. However, the presence or absence of these elements can influence the poem's musicality and structure.

4. **Enjambment:** Look for instances of enjambment, where a line of poetry doesn't end with punctuation and continues onto the next line. Enjambment can create a sense of continuity and fluidity in the reading experience.

5. **Repetition:** Identify any repeated words, phrases, or structures. Repetition can emphasize key ideas, create a rhythmic pattern, or reinforce certain themes.

6. **Punctuation:** Analyze the use of punctuation, including periods, commas, and dashes. Punctuation choices can affect the pacing and interpretation of the poem.

7. **Shifts in Tone or Perspective:** Examine the poem for any noticeable shifts in tone, perspective, or imagery. These shifts can mark transitions between different dimensions or ideas within the poem.

Understanding the structure of the poem helps readers appreciate how the poet organizes thoughts, conveys meaning, and guides the emotional experience of the reader.

Sound and rhythm

The sound and rhythm in "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha contribute to the poem's overall musicality and impact. While I don't have the specific text or formatting, I can offer general considerations:

1. **Rhyme Scheme:** Analyze if the poem follows a specific rhyme scheme. Rhyming patterns can enhance the musical quality of the poem and create a sense of cohesion.

2. **Meter:** Explore if there is a consistent meter or rhythmic pattern. Common meters include iambic pentameter or trochaic tetrameter. The choice of meter influences the poem's pacing and rhythm.

3. **Alliteration and Assonance:** Look for repeated consonant sounds (alliteration) or vowel sounds (assonance) within lines. These devices contribute to the poem's auditory appeal.

4. **Repetition:** Note any repeated words, phrases, or sounds. Repetition can create a rhythmic pattern and emphasize key themes or ideas.

5. **Caesura:** Identify instances of caesura, where a natural pause occurs within a line. Caesurae can influence the poem's rhythm and add emphasis to specific words or ideas.

6. **Onomatopoeia:** Check for words that imitate sounds. Onomatopoeia can enhance the sensory experience and contribute to the poem's auditory quality.

7. **Enjambment and Line Length:** Consider how the use of enjambment (continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line) and varying line lengths contribute to the poem's rhythm and flow.

By examining these elements, you can gain insight into how the poet uses sound and rhythm to create a unique and engaging poetic experience. The interplay of these elements influences the reader's emotional response and enhances the overall impact of the poem.


The syntax in "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha refers to the arrangement of words and phrases to form sentences and convey meaning. While I don't have the specific text, I can discuss general considerations:

1. **Sentence Structure:** Analyze the types of sentences used. Are they predominantly simple, compound, or complex? The complexity of sentence structures can influence the pacing and flow of the poem.

2. **Word Order:** Consider the arrangement of words within sentences. Unusual or inverted word order can draw attention to specific elements and contribute to the poem's unique style.

3. **Parallelism:** Look for instances of parallel structure, where similar grammatical structures are used for balance and emphasis. Parallelism can create a rhythmic quality in the poem.

4. **Fragmentation:** Note if the poet employs sentence fragments. Fragmented syntax can convey a sense of immediacy or urgency, adding to the overall tone of the poem.

5. **Ellipsis and Dashes:** Observe the use of ellipsis (...) or dashes. These punctuation marks can indicate pauses, interruptions, or shifts in thought, influencing the poem's rhythm and pacing.

6. **Repetition:** Examine if there is repetition of sentence structures. Repetition can emphasize key ideas and contribute to the overall musicality of the poem.

7. **Inversion:** Identify instances of inverted word order, where the usual subject-verb-object sequence is changed. Inversion can be used for emphasis or stylistic effect.

By analyzing the syntax, you can gain a deeper understanding of how the poet constructs sentences and shapes the linguistic aspects of the poem. This, in turn, contributes to the poem's overall style and impact on the reader.


Understanding the context of "Three Dimensions" by José Craveirinha involves considering the historical, cultural, and literary background surrounding the poem and the poet. Unfortunately, without specific details about the poem's context, I can provide some general points:

1. **Author's Background:** José Craveirinha was a Mozambican poet and journalist. Consider his life experiences, cultural influences, and the socio-political context of Mozambique during the time he wrote the poem. His works often engage with themes of identity, colonialism, and social issues.

2. **Mozambican Independence:** Craveirinha lived during a period when Mozambique was gaining independence from Portuguese colonial rule. Explore how this historical context might influence the themes in his poetry, including "Three Dimensions."

3. **Industrialization and Modernization:** Given the poem's focus on machinery and gods associated with technology, consider the broader context of industrialization and modernization. How were these processes unfolding in Mozambique or globally during the time of Craveirinha's writing?

4. **Literary Movement:** Investigate if Craveirinha was associated with any literary movements or groups. Understanding the literary landscape of the time can provide insights into the poet's stylistic choices and thematic concerns.

5. **Symbolism in Mozambican Culture:** The symbolism in the poem may draw on cultural elements specific to Mozambique. Explore how the gods and machinery might symbolize aspects of Mozambican identity, struggles, or aspirations.

6. **Language and Translation:** If you are reading a translation of the poem, consider how the translator's choices may influence your interpretation. Language nuances and cultural references can sometimes be challenging to capture fully in translation.

By delving into these contextual aspects, you can gain a more comprehensive understanding of "Three Dimensions" and appreciate how the poem reflects the poet's perspective within the historical and cultural milieu in which it was written.

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